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Vertebral anatomy? Read and discover what happens to your body

If you are able to read this from the beginning to the end, today you will have learned a lot.

Not only of anatomy of the vertebral anatomy, but why your body feels what it feels and what is connected to what.

That phrase will be fulfilled: you will not go to bed without knowing one more thing.

Because what we have here, gentlemen, is knowledge and learning of the body, from the tip of the head to the tip of the toes, you will understand the human body.

And maybe, you would relate something of yours with what is written, and … magic, you would come up with the solution for ‘your issue’.

Ready? Invest only a few minutes, and you will gain knowledge for life. A win win. Don’t even think about it.


The human spine has natural curvatures.

Yes, now you will say that you already knew it, but come on, tell me by heart: how many curves do we have?

Keep reading!

When you look at your back from behind, the spine should be straight and centered on the pelvis.

However, when you look at the spine sideways, the curves are designed to maintain balance since the spine has organs behind the chest and abdomen.

The column has two alternate curves to create an “S” shape. In the neck and lower back there is usually a curvature inward, a backward swing, known as lordosis.

In the thoracic spine and the sacrum there is a known external curvature with kyphosis, the hunchback ‘standard’.

These curves normally balance each other, so that when the person stands up, he is well balanced with his head straight above the hips when viewed from the side. Do you see it?

Standing in this position minimizes the effect of gravity and allows people to have the best postures, and thus use the least energy when moving or walking.

Numbers of the spine:

There are seven cervical vertebrae (C), twelve thoracic vertebrae (T) and five lumbar vertebrae (L).

A bone ring adheres to the back of the vertebral body, forming a channel for the spinal cord and nerves.

The couplings, known as the joints:

A joint is a connection between two bones.

Our spine is made up of multiple joints at each level and, many of these joints in the spine are synovial joints.

Synovial joints are the most common and mobile type of joint in our body.

The skull is connected to the cervical spine in C1 through synovial joints called the occipital-cervical joint.

Each segment of movement of the spine has a pair of joints that provide posterior support for the spine.

The vertebrae are stacked on top of each other and are separated by intervertebral discs, which act as elastic cushions or cushions.

The first two cervical vertebrae are an exception and have no disc.


There are seven cervical vertebrae, called C1-C7, designed for flexibility and movement. The cervical spine has a lordotic shape or a “C” shape backwards.

The first two cervical vertebrae are very specialized to allow us to turn our heads from side to side. First cervical vertebra (C1) is called atlas and is named after the Greek titan Atlas, who carried the world on his shoulders.

This bone is formed as a ring that sits on the second cervical vertebra (C2).

The second cervical vertebra (C2) is called Axis, since it is the line on which the head and C1 rotate. Vertebra C1 connects the skull with the cervical spine. These two vertebrae have a different anatomy than the rest of the spine.

While the cervical spine is very flexible, it is also at greater risk of injury from strong sudden movements, since there is less muscle support.


There are twelve thoracic vertebrae, called T1-T12, specialized to provide stability.

The thoracic spine helps keep the body in an upright position, protects the vital organs inside the chest and articulates with each rib to form the rib cage.

Each rib is firmly connected to each level of the thoracic spine.

The thoracic spine has a kyphotic shape, a “C” shape, and the disks in this part of the spine are relatively thin.


Usually, there are five lumbar vertebrae, called L1-L5, designed to support loads and movements. In some people, they may have developed four or six lumbar vertebrae. In some cases, one of the bones of the sacrum, the base of the spine, is formed as a vertebra instead of the sacrum. This is called a transition vertebra (or sixth) and is simply a bone abnormality. And in some cases too, the last lumbar vertebra wants to be one with the sacrum, so it begins to change it’s anatomy. This is called sacralization, nother bone abnormality.

The lumbar spine is shaped like a cervical spine; It is lordotic as a “C” backwards. The two lordotic curves in the neck and lower back are balanced by the kyphotic thoracic curve “C”. So that the center of gravity of the spine is generally balanced in the form of “S”.

The vertebrae of the lumbar spine are the largest in the entire spine, designed to withstand increasing forces of weight. The lumbar spinal canal is also the largest, allowing more space for the nerves.


The sacrum is formed by five fused vertebrae that form a single bone. The sacrum is shaped like an inverted triangle with the base at the top.

It acts as a wedge between the two iliac pelvic bones. On both sides of the pelvis, the sacrum articulates with the ilium through the sacroiliac joints.

And the coccyx is formed by the fusion of four to five rudimentary vertebrae, commonly known as coccyx.

Sacroiliac Joint:

The sacroiliac joint (SI) is a joint that supports a large weight in the pelvis,  that connects the sacrum and the pelvis.

There are two joints, one on each side of the sacrum.

This joint is reinforced by strong ligaments. Both joints move together as a single unit to transmit the forces of the upper body and provide shock absorption to the spine.

We are doing well thanks to these joints.

There is a small amount of movement in this joint to allow a walking pattern in normal human locomotion. Like other joints in the body, this joint can become inflamed, unstable and dysfunctional.

The well-known intervertebral discs:

An intervertebral disc is a strong ligament that connects a vertebral bone with the next.

The discs are the shock absorbers between each vertebra of the spine. This disk consists of three basic structures: fibrous ring, nucleus pulposus and the vertebral plates.

The three disk structures are made of different compositions:

collagen (the main protein in connective tissue), water, and proteins that bind water.

Different compositions create different functions.

The discs in the spine increase in size from the neck to the lower back, since there is a greater need for shock absorption due to weight and gravity.

These specific disc ligaments work just like the knee and shoulder ligaments. They allow the column to move so that we can lean forward, backward and sideways.

The core of each disk consists of a gel-like matrix that provides maximum hydration. It works to distribute pressures in all directions within each disk under compression forces.

Nervous system: 

Two nerves leave each level, one to the left and the other to the right. 

The spinal cord leaves the brain through a hole in the base of the skull called foramen magnum. This spinal cord and nerves travel from the cervical spine to the lowest point of the spine, the sacrum. The spinal nerves leave the spinal canal between the vertebrae in each level. 

Two nerves leave each level, one to the left and the other to the right. These nerves come out through openings called forages. 

The nerves leave the spinal cord and travel to specific destinations in the body. The nerves that leave the neck travel to both arms and those of the lower back to both legs.

So, if you have read and understood all this…

How necessary is water for the body, if the discs are made of it and we wear them out?

So, you understand that if your toe hurts, it is probably that nerve that goes to the top, is in a bad position?

How logical is that if we move throughout our lives, the vertebrae turn around, and they don’t always stay well placed?

How logical is it that if your spine is twisted and your nerves are pinched/irritated, IRRIGATION to the brain does not flow at 100%?

In La Olivera, we are waiting for you!

And if you share this article now, you rock!


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